In many languages, to do translations, a team would pull in a library to handle some of the basic internationalization (i18n). In Elm though, we have access to tools to do this on the language level without a library and instead can use a couple of functions and unions—lessening our dependencies.

So what’s so awesome about using union types? Unlike a Dict, we get type safety for the translations to verify that they exist and we’ve covered all the cases. It’ll be very easy to reason about the translations since everything is just a couple of case statements. It will look a bit fluffy, but that’s elm-format for you.

The accompanying source code for this post is in this GitHub repository. There’s also a demo—so that’s kinda neat.

So What Are the Pieces to the Translation Puzzle?


Our Language is a union of the languages the application supports.

type Language
    = EnUk
    | EnUs
    | EsMx


These are the basic building blocks and represent the phrases that the application will be translating.

type Phrase
    = Greeting String
    | Name
    | TextColor String
    | Color
    | Red
    | Blue
    | Green


An alias for function from our phrase to a string to display.

type alias Translator =
    Phrase -> String


Part 1: A top-level function that can be partially applied with our language at the view level that selects the appropriate translate function for the rest of the application.

translate : Language -> Translator
translate lang =
    case lang of
        EnUk ->

        EnUs ->

        EsMx ->

Part2: Breaking down the top-level function into sub-level translations will make this easier to digest along with giving us a hand-off-able file for translators to do their thing.

translate : Phrase -> String
translate phrase =
    case phrase of
        Greeting name ->
            "Yo, " ++ name ++ "!"

        Name ->

        TextColor color ->
            "The color of this text is " ++ color ++ "."

        Color ->

        Red ->

        Blue ->

        Green ->

So between these 4.5 concepts we can wield an entire way to translate across our application. In this example an I18n folder with a structure looks like this:

├── Languages
│   ├── EnUk.elm
│   ├── EnUs.elm
│   └── EsMx.elm
├── I18n.elm
└── Phrases.elm

…where Phrases.elm contains our Phrase union, Languages/*.elm contains just the translate function for its corresponding language, and I18n.elm contains the rest of the Translator, Language union, and the top-level translate.

Hold Up: There’s Another Thing We’ll Need Though

And that is a way to get from a string sent to our app to the Language union. I’ll be using this guy since it fits my needs of peeling out navigator.language from the browser (i.e. a string like en-US or es_MX). We would traverse the array from navigator.languages if support was better:

import Regex
import String

toLanguage : String -> Language
toLanguage lang =
        -- will split our string on non-chars, take the first
        -- 2 matches, and lowercase them
        codeFinder : String -> List String
        codeFinder =
                << List.take 2
                << Regex.split (Regex.AtMost 2) (Regex.regex "[^A-Za-z]")

        -- pattern that regex into Tuple2 of Maybes
        -- containing the ( language code, country code )
        locale : ( Maybe String, Maybe String )
        locale =
            case codeFinder lang of
                a :: b :: _ ->
                    ( Just a, Just b )

                a :: _ ->
                    ( Just a, Nothing )

                _ ->
                    ( Nothing, Nothing )
        -- Using pattern matching and wildcards, we can
        -- choose the appropriate language and fallbacks
        case locale of
            ( Just "en", Just "uk" ) ->

            ( Just "en", Just "au" ) ->

            ( Just "en", Just "nz" ) ->

            ( Just "en", _ ) ->

            ( Just "es", _ ) ->

            _ ->

So What’s the Most Basic Example of Putting This All Together?

import Html exposing (text)
import I18n.I18n as I18n exposing (Translator)
import I18n.Phrases as Phrases

main : Html String
main =
        -- in an app, we’d build a `translate` function
        -- here and hand it around to our views so they
        -- can reference it
        translate : Translator
        translate =
            I18n.translate <| I18n.toLanguage "en-US"
        -- in composing `text` and `translate` we have
        -- `Phrase -> Html String`
        text << translate <| Phrases.Greeting "toastal"

-- displays: Yo, toastal!

But Let’s Get “Fancy” With an Example

(Those are air quotes)

☞ See the source here



Using a couple language-level features in Elm—unions, cases, and functions—we can create a seer stone for our app to translate all of our custom phrases. It’s hardly complicated enough to require a library for a simple use case. One thing to keep in mind though is depending on your translation service, you may have to create some parser/Elm code generator to move from another format that’s not a .elm file if required, but that shouldn’t be terribly complicated.